Aliases are short pieces of text that represent the title of certain items (Menu items, Articles and Categories) in a machine-friendly format. This format allows only lowercase letters and dashes (-).
Aliases are used by Joomla to make Search Engine Friendly URLs. There are technical limitations to the types of characters that can be included in URLs, so Joomla prevents problems with invalid characters by allowing you to specify an alias.
You can fill in an alias yourself. If you leave the alias field empty, Joomla will automatically create an alias from the Title field of an item when it is saved. This means that if you edit the title of an item, but you leave the old alias in its field, the alias (and the URL that is created from it) will not change. Empty the alias field if you want generate a new alias.
An anchor is created using the <a> tag in HTML. An anchor allows you to place a bookmark inside an HTML page. In Joomla!, you can place an anchor inside an article (for example, using the TinyMCE editor). This lets you create a link that will go directly to that point in the article.
The HTML source code for an anchor looks like the following:
<a name="my_anchor" title="My Anchor"></a>
You can link to an anchor from within the same page using the HTML code
<a href="#my_anchor" ></a>
Clicking that link will take you directly to the location of the anchor tag.
You can link to an anchor in a different page by appending "#" plus the anchor name to the end of the URL. In the example above, if the URL for the article was
http://www.mysite.com/my_article.html, then you could link directly to the anchor in that page with the URL
In Joomla! an Article is a piece of content consisting of text (HTML), possibly with links to other resources (for example, images). Articles are the basic units of information in the content system and the bottom level in the content hierarchy. Since Joomla! , each Article is in exactly one Category. A Category can be in another Category making it a sub Category. It is also possible to have Uncategorised Articles. These articles exist without being associated with any Category.
Administration panel of Joomla
Every part of Joomla! powered web site or any CMS type of web site needs a method to display and store its content logically. The usual method is by categories and subcategories. Joomla! allows for multiple ways to display and use content controlled by categorisation. Some of the content types which have categorisation are articles (Main content of web pages), banners, contacts and web links.
Joomla! category named "Uncategorised" is the default category, assigned to any and all content types. The "Uncategorised" category is not descriptive and should be used on as needed basis for content types which do not fall under a specific category.
When creating and assigning categories, you should have a planned structure. As an example, this is one way of how you would categorise several Joomla articles on birds. Create two top article categories called "Animals" and "Plants". Under the "Animals" category, you might have sub categories called "Birds" and "Mammals". Under the "Birds" sub category, you might have 3 articles named "Hawks," "Parrots" and "Sparrows".
A component is a kind of Joomla! extension. Components are the main functional units of Joomla!; they can be seen as mini-applications. An easy analogy would be that Joomla! is the operating system and the components are desktop applications. Created by a component, content is usually displayed in the center of the main content area of a template (depending on the template).
Most components have two main parts: an administrator part and a site part. The site part is what is used to render pages of your site when they are requested by your site visitors during normal site operation. The administrator part provides an interface to configure and manage different aspects of the component and is accessible through the Joomla! administrator application.
Joomla! comes with a number of core components, like the content management system, contact forms and Web Links.
The word "core" in Joomla! pertains to the distributed files which are needed to create and administrate a Joomla CMS powered web site. These files can be downloaded from the Joomla website at http://www.joomla.org/download.html. The Joomla "core" also contains some basic functionality to get new Joomla installations working quickly and easily. Included are the user manager, article manager, weblink manager, category manager, contact manager, and menu manager. There is also a template manager with a few basic templates to power the front-end (website/user) view, a module manager with basic modules, plugin manager with basic plugins, and a few other "out of the box" extensions to extend the functionality of a basic Joomla installation. These core's extensions should not be confused with extensions which are available for downloading from the JED (Joomla! Extension Directory).
A Cascading Style Sheet or CSS is used to control the presentation of an XHTML page. For example, a CSS file will often control the font, margins, color, background graphics, and other aspects of a web page's appearance. CSS allows you to separate the content of an XHTML page from it's appearance. In Joomla!, CSS files (for example, template.css) are normally part of the template.
The database table prefix is a string (a few characters long) prepended to the name of Joomla!'s tables. Using a prefix enables you to run multiple installations of Joomla! using a single database.
The database table prefix can be set during installation. Changing it later is possible, but requires access to the database through a non-Joomla medium or a Joomla Extension such as Akeeba Admin Tools and will cause some downtime.